Wolbert G.C. Smidt
12. December 2023,18:00 CET
This talk focuses on local language practices, in contrast to official discourses on language and established understandings of vocabulary. In language practice, understanding of words are to some degree highly fluid and situational – according to political context, local experiences of success or suffering, cultural norms regarding the self-organisation of society, networking, negotiations of chances and mutual relations, and of historical memory shape the use of words. This includes local traditions of resistance against power, from a very local to the state level. This talk will focus on Tigrinya practice in the urban and rural context in Tigray, not within institutional settings (which tend to be state-oriented), but in private conversations (which are reflecting daily practice fluctuating between trust for the state and ideas of local rights beyond the state). Vocabulary around concepts of „land“ (addi, hager) are discussed, such as concepts of „government“ (mengisti) and of „law“ (heggi), which are used in a particular way in local parlance, marked by centuries of strong local autonomy, challenges of survival and the periodical presence of state actors. The state, at least the modern one, appears rather as an outside force, from which one may need protection, against one needs to rebel, or to which one needs to submit or which provides chances to be used – while in all cases, language practice shows the domination of local views of life organisation, land use and law, where the state is not authoritative. In short: Local realities defy the illusions of a strong state.
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24. October 2023, 18:00 CET
Since the 19th century, the Wällo region in Ethiopia has served as a prominent hub for Islamic education. This has led to the establishment of numerous centers dedicated to Islamic scholarship, fostering a flourishing literary tradition. In addition to Arabic literature, there has been a notable emergence of literature in local languages such as Amharic, Argobba, Afar, and Oromo, all of which were written using the Arabic script. The language found in these manuscripts is heavily influenced by Classical Arabic, to the extent that Drewes (1976) describes it as a „intricate mixture of languages.“ This phenomenon raises broader questions about the relationship between language and religion, particularly the notion of distinct religiously defined linguistic varieties, such as „Islamic languages“ (Bausani 1981, challenged by Versteegh 2020) or „Muslim“ varieties (Gori 2015). Hary and Wein (2013) propose the concept of „religiolect“ as a theoretical framework that may shed light on this matter. Additionally, Brenner and Last (1985) discuss the use of „learned dialects“ within social contexts characterized by Islamic scholarship. The presentation will provide an overview of Islamic Amharic manuscript literature, describe its linguistic peculiarities and discuss its sociolinguistic role.
- Bausani, Alessandro. 1981.“Le lingue islamiche: Interazioni e acculturazioni”. In Bausani, Alessandro and Scarcia Amoretti, Biancamaria (eds.). Il mondo islamico tra interazione e acculturazione. Rome: Università degli Studi di Roma. 3-19.
- Brenner, Louis and Last, Murray. 1985. “The role of language in West African Islam”. Africa 55(4). 432-446.
- Gori, Alessandro. 2015. “Languages and literatures of the Muslims of the Horn of Africa: some first general reflections”. In: P. Nicelli (Ed.). L’africa, l’oriente mediterraneo e l’europa. Tradizioni e culture a confronto. Milano: Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana. 119-126.
- Drewes, Abraham Johannes. 1976. Classical Arabic in Central Ethiopia. Leiden: Brill.
- Hary, Benjamin and Wein, Martin J. 2013. “Religiolinguistics: on Jewish-, Christian- and Muslim-defined languages”. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 220. 85-108.
- Versteegh, Kees. 2020. “Can a Language be Islamic?” Eurasian Studies 18. 5-25.
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14. November 2023,18:00 CET
The talk introduces Jutta Bakonyi’s and Pete Chonka’s new monograph ‘Precarious Urbanism. Displacement, Belonging and the Reconstruction of Somali Cities’ (Bristol University Press, 2023). Building on narrative interviews and photo-voice the book discusses the nexus of displacement and urbanisation in four Somali cities: Hargeisa in Somaliland, and Bosaso, Baidoa and Mogadishu in Somalia. We follow the reasons and routes of displacement before we analyse the micro-political economy that underpin urban settlements but also drive dynamics of evictions and gentrification. While we show that displaced persons are active agents of city making, we also critically engage with the discursive construction of the Internally Displaced Person (IDP) and show how this label exerts power and structures socio-economic inequalities and the politics of belonging in the four cities.
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28. November 2023, 18:00 CET
Somaliland in north-western Somalia seceded unilaterally from the rest of Somalia in 1991. Since then, it developed as viable de facto state. It is generally reported as beacon of stability, praised for its internal peace, (relatively) democratic elections and the legitimacy of its political institutions. In recent years, there has been a considerable influx of international aid, investment and political support to Somaliland, nurturing hopes of international recognition. However, what often is ignored by external observers, and what also is consciously silenced by Somaliland elites and vocal supporters in the diaspora, is the plurality of political positions within Somaliland for and against secession from Somalia. These positions are, to a considerable degree, related to clan-belonging. Members of the Isaaq clan-family residing in the centre of Somaliland tend to support secession. Those belonging to the Harti-clan-collective residing in the east mainly reject secession. The epicentre of this conflict has since twenty years now been Lasanod and surrounding’s. Marginalization and militarization have become the hallmark of the area since 2002. Over the years, Somaliland forces and Harti militias clashed occasionally. The Somaliland army eventually established itself as dominant power. Yet, in December 2022, an uprising started in Lasanod that transformed in a veritable war. Between February and August 2023, the Somaliland army laid siege to Lasanod, frequently shelling the town. Local militias put up resistance which was logistically and militarily supported by Puntland, which is part of Somalia and neighbours Somaliland to the east. On 25 August, the Harti militias routed the Somaliland army positioned around Lasanod and drove them far west, out of all Harti clan-lands. Subsequently, the Harti began to establish their own administration called SSC-Khaatumo, which sees itself as part of Somalia. At the moment, it is unclear if the government of Somaliland will engaged in a military counter-offensive. Additional to the military defeat in the east, Somaliland faces internal rifts in the centre. If the status quo continues, Somaliland’s secessionist project is likely “dead”. What will this mean for peace and stability in the region?
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