Archiv des Autors: gu89go

Transitional Justice and Legal Pluralism in Somalia: Which Role for Shari’a?

Markus Virgil Hoehne

Abstract of the Online-Presentation on 13 July 2022, 18:00

The overwhelming majority of Somalis are Sunni Muslims. Simultaneously, Somalis belong to patrilineal descent groups among and between which customary law is relevant. Decades of (civil) war have weakened the state as centralized political institution and with it, the statutory legal system. Recently, some Somali elites and donors initiated reflections on transitional justice in Somalia. A pilot research has been undertaken into this direction, on which this presentation is based. To come to terms with the complex layers of past violence in Somalia means also to think about how to integrate the various normative orders existing on the ground. Customary, religious, statutory law can be described as ‘semi-autonomous legal fields’ in the sense of Sally Falk Moore, influencing each other a situation of non-hierarchical legal pluralism. A comprehensive approach to transitional justice in Somalia thus would have to accommodate elements of these different relevant legal systems. While no legal system effectively dominates, empirical research has shown that Shari’a is accepted by the vast majority of Somalis as the ‘ideal’ order.  Transitional justice frameworks elsewhere, e.g., in Rwanda and Liberia, merged statutory and customary law. But there are only very few cases in which Shari’a has been added to complex, typically legally ‘hybrid’ transitional justice arrangements.  This presentation reflects the role of Islamic law in the context of dealing with the violent past in Somalia and in which regard Shari’a complements or collides with other relevant normative orders and established modes of transitional justice. 

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“All that nonsense that comes with a life insurance is not there” – Insurance associations in the Ethiopian diaspora in southern California

Sophia Thubauville

Update: The Online-Presentation on 29 June 2022, 18:00, will be postponed.

Abstract

Southern California has an Ethiopian diaspora population that goes back to the socialist revolution in Ethiopia in the early 1970s. Because of political and economic reasons, this population increased immensely around the turn of the millennium. With around 50,000 members, this is one of the largest diaspora communities in the US, the country that hosts with 500,000 the largest Ethiopian diaspora worldwide.

One of the central and most celebrated life rituals in Ethiopia, is the funeral service. For most members of the community it is important to hold this important celebration in the USA according to cultural norms or to repatriate the deceased to their home country. Both options are very expensive and require the help of others in implementation (be it in the preparation of Ethiopian food or knowledge of American export laws).

From the beginning of their settlement in southern California, Ethiopians organized their own insurance associations. At that early time they were few in numbers and in size, more informal and intimate. Around ten years ago, once many members of the population became more settled, many new insurance associations were established to give a culturally appropriate farewell to deceased members of the community. Apart from being more formalized, these new organizations are much larger and therefore more anonymous. In my presentation, I would like to trace the development of these informal associations and their adaption to their host society.

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Online Lecture Series „New Perspectives on the Horn of Africa“

This series of online lectures is a continuation of the program begun last year to present scholarly engagement with and about the Horn of Africa region to a broader audience. This years Programm started with the presentation of Wolbert Smidt on April 13.
The lectures will be held via Zoom meetings. Registration takes place via email.

4. May 2022, 18:00
Kiya Gezahegne
„Muslim by day and Christian by dawn“: The Religious Experience of Ethiopian Migrants to the Sudan
Email Registration
Abstract

18. May 2022, 18:00
Andreas Wetter
Islamic Scholarship and literary traditions in Wollo
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Abstract

15. June 2022, 18:00
Echi Gabbert & Jonah Wedekind
Book launch
Lands of the Future:
Anthropological Perspectives on Pastoralism, Land Deals and Tropes of Modernity in Eastern Africa

Email Registration
Abstract

29. June 2022, 18:00
POSTPONED
Sophia Thubauville
„All that nonsense that comes with a life insurance is not there”
Insurance associations in the Ethiopian diaspora in southern California
Abstract

13. July 2022, 18:00
Markus V. Höhne
Transitional Justice and Legal Pluralism in Somalia: Which Role for Shari’a?
Email Registration
Abstract

Why old maps of Northeastern Africa are not old:
Cartographic collections as a repository of local territorial knowledge and practice

Wolbert G.C. Smidt

Online-Vortrag am 13. April 2022, 18:00 Uhr, Zoom

Old maps of Northeastern Africa have still to be re-discovered from an anthropological perspective. Especially maps dating from the 19th century contain a wealth of information on toponyms, regional names and the territorial extension of groups, local concepts of boundaries and of routes, overlaps of political claims, ethnic tensions and interactions, and even ecology and archaeology. However, they have almost not yet been subject of systematic studies. They are loved by collectioners, in some cases used as a rather anecdotal reference in academic works, while anthropology, especially ethnohistory, could still make much out of them, especially in combination with other sources on territorial traditions and local socio-political practices.

Old map Northern Ethiopia

This paper presents several examples from old maps from the 17th to 19th centuries, which show that they were not simply „external“ products of travelling cartographers and researchers, but rather results of an intense local support and communication with experienced local partners, who were specialists for territorial knowledge and socio-political practices. Despite simplifications and incompleteness, the „indigenous“ information stored on the maps is extremely rich and helps to understand political and cultural-territorial processes. In numerous cases the territorial realities we find on old maps are part of ongoing and unfinished processes until today and have effects on local identities and territorial self-definition. That is why the re-reading of old maps can be fruitful as an additional instrument to interpret modern political and political-cultural processes in a both highly dynamic, and highly conservative Northeastern Africa, whose regions, populations and cultures are marked by strong local identities.

Die Vorträge werden über Zoom-Meetings abgehalten. Bitte melden Sie sich per Email als Zuhörer*in an.

Cover von Medieval Ethiopian Kingship, Craft, and Diplomacy with Latin Europe

Kleines Vademecum zum christlich-äthiopischen Mittelalter

Die Historikerin Verena Krebs, Juniorprofessorin an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, die im Frühjahr ihr viel gerühmtes Buch Medieval Ethiopian Kingship, Craft, and Diplomacy with Latin Europe veröffentlichte, hat im April auf dem Twitter Account Twittistorian ein sehr hilfreiche Liste zur Forschung über das christliche äthiopische Mittelalter zusammengestellt, die für alle an dieser Epoche Interessierten spannende Literaturhinweise enthält.

Mit ihrer Erlaubnis stellen wir ihre Liste auf unserem Blog vor.


I’ve been tweeting about Solomonic Christian #Ethiopia, kingship, royal churches, & embassies to Latin Europe based on my new book last week.

The most important reference work for the field is the Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, 5 volumes (2003-2014). It’s an invaluable resource that’s got basically EVERYTHING on anything in the region, Christian, Muslim, local religions throughout time alike.

An EXCELLENT, brand-new overview and introduction to Ethiopia between ca. 700-1550 is A Companion to Medieval Ethiopia and Eritrea (ed. Samantha Kelly). It’s pricey, but really good. Suggest it to your local library, perhaps?

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Zeitschrift Cover "Addis Sport"

Äthiopiens olympische Geschichte

Katrin Bromber
Online-Vortrag, 9. September 2021, 18:00 Uhr

Trotz der schwierigen politischen Lage im Land nahmen äthiopische Sportler und Sportlerinnen erfolgreich an den diesjährigen Olympischen Sommerspielen in Tokio teil. Mit einer Goldmedaille im 1000 Meter-Lauf, Silber über 3000 Meter- Hindernislauf und jeweils Bronze über 10000 und 5000 Meter bewiesen sie erneut ihre Stärke auf den Langstrecken. Neben Athletinnen und Athleten im Radfahren und Schwimmen nahm erstmals auch ein Taekwondo Kämpfer teil. In ihrem Vortrag geht Katrin Bromber auf die Äthiopiens olympische Geschichte ein, die bereits 1924 mit der Teilnahme Ras Tafaris und anderer äthiopischer Würdenträger an der Eröffnungsveranstaltung der Olympischen Sommerspiele im Colombe Stade Olympique bei Paris begann.

Der Vortrag wird über Zoom-Meetings abgehalten. Bitte melden Sie sich per Email als Zuhörer*in an.

„Starting with confusion will end up in confusion“ – Reflektionen zur internationalen Rechtsstaatlichkeitsförderung im Südsudan

Katrin Seidel

Abstract des Online-Vortrags am 17. Juni 2021, 18:00 Uhr, Zoom

Nachdem die Vereinten Nationen im Juli 2011 den Südsudan in die Staatengemeinschaft aufnahmen, erklärte der frühere Generalsekretär Ban Ki-moon: „Wie jedes Neugeborene braucht auch der Südsudan Hilfe“. Die Metapher des “Neugeborenen“ impliziert einseitige Fürsorge und schafft die Vorstellung eines Dualismus zwischen einerseits den reichen erfahrenen und andererseits den armen unwissenden und pflegebedürftigen Angehörigen der internationalen Gemeinschaft. So prägen Ideen der Fürsorge das Engagement in Südsudans Staatswerdung nach langem Bürgerkrieg und Abspaltung. Eine enorme Kluft zwischen Versprechungen und Wirkungen internationaler Unterstützung wird aufgrund oft realitätsferner Prämissen und standardisierter Instrumente in einem Kontext sichtbar, wo bisher kein gesellschaftlicher Konsens über nationale Werte, ein Fundament des Gemeinwesens oder über politische Strukturen erreicht werden konnte.
In dem Vortrag möchte ich die vorherrschende Einstellung einer elterlichen Fürsorge hinterfragen und aufzeigen, wie verwirrend die internationale Rechtsstaatlichkeitsförderung von den Empfängern wahrgenommen wird und welche unerwünschten Folgen infantilisierende Gleichnisse produzieren können. Entstehende Spannungen zwischen internationalen Interventionen und lokaler Eigenverantwortung sollen zum Nachdenken über Legitimität und Ausmaß internationaler Interventionen anregen. Ich argumentiere, dass eine wirkungsorientierte Rechtsstaatlichkeitsförderung Bewusstsein dafür verlangt, dass diese stets von der gesellschaftlichen Ordnung vor Ort abhängig ist. Dementsprechend muss Kontextsensibilität der Ausgangspunkt jeglicher Unterstützung sein.

Die Vorträge werden über Zoom-Meetings abgehalten. Bitte melden Sie sich per Email als Zuhörer*in an.

Cover Lands of the Future, 2021

Book presentation: Lands of the Future. Anthropological Perspectives on Pastoralism, Land Deals and Tropes of Modernity in Eastern Africa

Online book presentation with Echi Gabbert, Asebe Regassa and Jonah Wedekind

15. Juni 2022, 18 Uhr, Zoom

About the Book
Rangeland, forests and riverine landscapes of pastoral communities in Eastern Africa are increasingly under threat. Abetted by states who think that outsiders can better use the lands than the people who have lived there for centuries, outside commercial interests have displaced indigenous dwellers from pastoral territories. This volume presents case studies from Eastern Africa, based on long-term field research, that vividly illustrate the struggles and strategies of those who face dispossession and also discredit ideological false modernist tropes like ‘backwardness’ and ‘primitiveness’.

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